Thursday, 3 May 2007

How thinking goes wrong

How Thinking Goes Wrong
Twenty-five Fallacies That Lead Us
to Believe Weird Things
1. Theory Influences Observations
2. The Observer Changes the Observed
3. Equipment Constructs Results
4. Anecdotes Do Not Make a Science
5. Scientific Language Does Not Make a Science
6. Bold Statements Do Not Make Claims True
7. Heresy Does Not Equal Correctness

8. Burden of Proof

9. Rumors Do Not Equal Reality
10. Unexplained Is Not Inexplicable
11. Failures Are Rationalized
12. After-the-Fact Reasoning
13. Coincidence
14. Representativeness
15. Emotive Words and False Analogies
16. Ad Ignorantiam
17. Ad Hominem and Tu
18. Hasty Generalization
19. Overreliance on Authorities
20. Either-Or
21. Circular Reasoning
22. Reductio ad Absurdum
and the Slippery Slope
23. Effort Inadequacies and
the Need for Certainty, Control, and Simplicity
24. Problem-Solving Inadequacies
25. Ideological Immunity, or the
Planck Problem
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